Last updated: Friday, 19, November, 2010
CausesAppropriate Tests
Protozoal infection
  • Toxoplasmosis, especially
  • Congenital infection
  • Relapsing infection
  • AIDS patients¬†

Viral infection

  • Cytomegalovirus infection, especially
  • Congenital infection
  • AIDS patients
  • Transplant patients
  • Varicella zoster infection
  • Herpes simplex infection
  • Measles (including SSPE)
Measles antibodies - serum or CSF, as appropriate.
  • Rubella

Fungal infection

  • Candidiasis, especially
  • IV cannulae
  • IV drug addiction
  • Cryptococcal infection
Usually associated with cryptococcal meningitis.
Bacterial infection
  • Tuberculosis (usually miliary)
  • Syphilis (congenital)
Helminth infection
  • Toxocara sp infection

FBC (eosinophilia).

Faeces - ova, cysts and parasites for associated parasitic infections.

Toxocara antibodies.

  • Sarcoidosis
Chorioretinitis is often seen in association with CNS sarcoid.