Last updated: Thursday, 29, July, 2010
CausesAppropriate Tests

Urinary tract infection

Urine microscopy and culture.

Testing may not be necessary for the diagnosis of acute, uncomplicated infection in young women, as a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection can be made if the urine is turbid and a leucocyte esterase test (urinalysis) is positive; a positive test for nitrite is not required.

Urine microscopy and culture should always be performed in severe or recurrent infection, or if there is suspicion of an underlying urinary tract abnormality (so called 'complicated infection').

Urine microscopy and culture should also be performed in all young children and in all males with a urinary tract infection.

Interstitial cystitis

Urine cytology and biopsy of the bladder wall may be indicated to confirm diagnosis and exclude malignancy.

Irradiation cystitis

Haemorrhagic cystitis

For recurrent cystitis, urological consultation should be considered.

Drug-induced, especially

  • Cyclophosphamide