Last updated: Friday, 16, July, 2010
Key InformationAppropriate Tests

FBC, blood group.

Rh(D) immunoglobulin should be administered if patient is Rh(D) negative.

Histology of tissue passed, or curette specimen.

See also Fetal death.



Serial beta human chorionic gonadotrophin.

Further investigation of underlying cause is usually only indicated if abortion is recurrent.

Trophoblastic disease

Beta human chorionic gonadotrophin.

Infection, especially

  • Brucella abortus
  • Parvovirus B19


See Brucellosis
See Parvovirus B19 infection.


Defined as 3 or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.

Uterine abnormalities

Endocrine disorders, especially

Fasting glucose


Autoimmune disorders, especially

  • Phospholipid antibody syndrome
  • SLE

APTT, lupus inhibitor; cardiolipin antibodies, antinuclear antibodies.

See Antiphospholipid syndrome

Inherited thrombophilias

Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin gene mutation, protein C, protein S, antithrombin III.
See Thrombophilia

Genetic abnormalities

Blood for cytogenetics (constitutional) (test both partners).

Cytogenetics of fetal/placental may be helpful (consult geneticist). Currently, molecular genetics is not indicated.


Uterine infection

  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Clostridium perfringens

Cervical swab, curettage tissue - microscopy and culture.

Blood culture; FBC, blood film. See also Septicaemia.

  • Listeria monocytogenes

See Listeriosis

  • Q fever