Last updated: Tuesday, 21, December, 2010
Clinical assessment, including age, gender, presence of systemic disease.
See also Bone fracture - pathological.
Investigation may be appropriate to demonstrate increased bone loss prior to the development of clinical disease in high risk patients; to establish the diagnosis of osteoporosis; to monitor efficacy of treatment.
Investigation may include bone density measurement and diagnostic imaging; calcium, phosphate, albumin, vitamin D, ALP; urine - calcium, creatinine, collagen crosslink fragments or hydroxyproline with hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio.
Collagen crosslink fragments are more specific for bone resorption than hydroxyproline.
Bone loss commences prior to the menopause.
See Multiple myeloma.
Chronic metabolic acidosis, especially
Bone may also show osteomalacia/rickets and effects of hyperparathyroidism.
Paget's disease of bone