Last updated: Thursday, 17, February, 2011
PresentationAppropriate Tests

American ie Chagas' disease

Acute infection including

Trypanosomes blood.

Chronic infection

Trypanosome antibodies.

African ie Sleeping sickness

Trypanosomes – blood. The concentration of parasites in the blood fluctuates so examination may have to be performed repeatedly. Cerebrospinal fluid examination is mandatory in all suspected or confirmed cases for accurate staging.

Local disease


Microscopy of fluid from chancre.

Stage 1 disease

  • Fever
  • Lymphadenopathy


Trypanosomes in blood or fluid aspirated from lymph node.

Stage 2 disease

  • Headache
  • Diurnal somnolence
  • Ataxic dyskinesia


Cerebrospinal fluid examination (increased cells, protein and IgM levels).