Last updated: Saturday, 29, January, 2011
CausesAppropriate Tests

Electrolytes, creatinine, urea; FBC and blood film.

Arterial blood gases; lactate, if patient is acidotic.

If patient is oliguric: urine - osmolality, sodium, creatinine (with calculation of fractional excretion of sodium).


  • Blood loss
  • Crush injury
  • Burn injury
See Burns
  • Addison’s disease
See under Adrenocortical insufficiency

Cardiac causes, especially

  • Cardiac tamponade, including
    • Haemopericardium

Drug overdose, especially

  • Narcotics
  • Phenothiazines

Acute spinal cord injury


Toxic shock syndrome

Acute iron poisoning

See Iron Toxicity