Last updated: Saturday, 15, January, 2011
Clinical assessment includes testicular site and size, evidence of androgen deficiency and of hypothalamic or pituitary disorder.
Semen analysis; FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone; testicular biopsy is rarely appropriate.See Table 7 Reference intervals for testosterone and related androgens (serum)
See also Infertility
Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (hypothalamic/pituitary disorders)
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone deficiency (Kallmann syndrome)
See under Hypopituitarism
Hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism (primary testicular disorders)
Vanishing testis syndrome
Acquired testicular failure
History of mumps, or other viral infection, associated with orchitis.
See under Muscular dystrophy