HMMA (4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelate) - urine

Last updated: Thursday, 16, August, 2007

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Item Process

24 hour urine collection with HCl as preservative.

A random urine specimen is satisfactory for children.

Reference Interval
Depends on method, age of patient; typically <35 µmol/24 hours (adult).

Investigation of hypertension, particularly paroxysmal hypertension and hypertension in young adults.

Investigation of suspected neuroblastoma or related tumours.


Increased 24 hour excretion is found with phaeochromocytoma (particularly if the urine specimen is collected during an hypertensive episode), neuroblastoma and related tumours.

Excretion may be normal in occasional cases. The stress of severe illness (eg, cardiac failure) may cause increased levels.

Some analytical methods are subject to drug interferences - consult pathologist.

See also Catecholamines - urineHomovanillate - urineMetadrenalines - urine.


Roberts NB et al. Ann Clin Biochem 1992; 29: 678-680.

Kellie SJ et al. Aust Paediatr J 1986; 22: 313-315.